Das Cabinet des Dr Caligari (1920) – A Masterclass on Horror Visual Storytelling

Das Cabinet des Dr Caligari (dir. Robert Wiene, 1920) – A hypnotist and a somnambulist come under suspicion for murder, following their bizarre town fair act.


This post is part of Preamble to Halloween, an October marathon of horror features before the dawn of All Hallows’ Eve.

Shrill screams and the crimson of blood have become so intrinsically tied to horror cinema, it is hard to imagine a film of the genre without either. But so it is with Das Cabinet des Dr Caligari, a 1920 German silent film that relied almost entirely on what is seen in black and white.

The strange tale is related by Francis (Friedrich Fehér) in his extensive flashback. To a stranger, he tells of his visit to the town fair with his friend Alan (Hans Heinrich von Twardowski). There, they witness the sideshow of hypnotist Dr Caligari (Werner Krauss), who wakes his somnambulist Cesare (Conrad Veidt) from a deep sleep.

Cesare opens his haunting eyes. Staring ahead, he tells the futures of curious onlookers, including Alan’s death that very night. It happens, just as foretold. A grieving Francis sets his heart on investigating his friend’s murder – and the curious two-men act who predicted it.

The Cabinet of Dr Caligari
If these walls could tip.

Roger Ebert once called this the “first true horror film”. While there have been many horror works before this, never has the genre been treated with such artistic intent. Director Robert Wiene did not shoot his picture, as much as he painted it. Every stroke of his cinematic brush feels deliberate, creating a work of art out of each shot.

His world is one made up of sharp edges, slanted walls and impractical staircases. German Expressionism reigns the screen with the brilliantly made sets, inviting audiences into a brand new reality that is distorted in visually striking ways. This uncanny imagery breathes life to Wiene’s unique and hypnotic vision, seemingly birthed right out of his very own bad dream.

Lighting plays a massive part, casting tall shadows around heavily made up actors. Not only did their dark eyes, emphatic expressions and exaggerated movements add to the film’s unnatural ambience. They paved the way for the look of iconic monsters that followed in the years ahead, from Nosferatu to Frankenstein.

The Cabinet of Dr Caligari
Introducing the original goth.

It did not matter that the story is simple by modern standards. Both the backdrop and cast at the forefront are carefully designed for scares. These elements are vital too, given the limitations of cinema back in the 20s. Words are kept to a minimal on the intertitles. Jump scares are out of the question with the absence of sound, while greyscale takes visceral gore and violence off the table.

Sans frills and effects, the film instead uses its sharp understanding of our psychology. It introduces us to an uncomfortably unfamiliar universe that seemingly could only appear in one’s fantastic imagination. An unreliable narrator and a twist ending add to the disquiet, leaving us unable to trust what we see. This was a masterclass of pioneering techniques that effectively play on what truly unsettles us.

It is hard to believe that this film was made a whole hundred years ago. Time has not diluted its impact but rather amplified its reach. Beyond the 20s and 30s, which saw a peak in German Expressionism cinema, other creatives continue to follow the film’s lead. Even musicians like Rob Zombie.

Be it in Caesar’s reflection in Edward Scissorhands or the characteristic sets of Suspiria, the influence remains visibly strong in modern cinema. Credit is owed to the film of many firsts Das Cabinet des Dr Caligari and its invaluable century-old lessons on the powerful language of visual storytelling in horror.

Das Cabinet des Dr Caligari is now screening at ArtScience Museum Singapore’s ArtScience on Scream.

3 thoughts on “Das Cabinet des Dr Caligari (1920) – A Masterclass on Horror Visual Storytelling”

  1. It is hard to believe this film was made a hundred years ago this year.

    I agree with Roger Ebert when he calls this “the world’s first horror film”.

    The first and only time I saw this film was in a theatre with a small live orchestra playing music to serve as background soundtrack.

    Among the instruments used was the world’s first electronic musical instrument the Russian invented theremin which produces a very ethereal, otherworldly and haunting melody.

    It created a perfect atmosphere for the surreal expressionism of the movie.

    Film director Alfred Hitchcock went to Germany for a brief period in the 1920s to learn his filmcraft from many of those involved in the making of the Cabinet of Dr. Caligari.

    Hitchcock’s use of human psychology to produce feelings of terror and suspense in his audience can be traced back to this cinematic masterpiece of German expressionism.

    The young Conrad Veight 22 years later went on to play the Nazi villain Major Heinrich Strasser in another cinematic masterpiece the 1942 movie Casablanca with Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman and Paul Henreid.

    Liked by 2 people

    1. Thanks much for sharing! Das Cabinet and its many connections to creatives today is very fascinating to read about. And you’re lucky to have seen the film with a live orchestra. What an incredible experience that must’ve been. I wish I had seen that or at least, a version if it!

      Liked by 1 person

Share your thoughts

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.